Monday, May 25, 2020

Problems Faced By The Asian City Of Beijing - 1917 Words

Conflicts in Measuring Progress The intention to step after the Western growth model can lead the Asian cities to the crisis (Heather, 2012). However, recently, China and India have managed to ensure the economic progress and significant living standards improvements for their economically unstable social groups of the population. At the same time, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) pointed out the rising inequality which can â€Å"soon undermine the very basis of these countries’ economies success† (Heather, 2012). Furthermore, according to the ADB, the gap between the poor and rich has not been reduced (Heather, 2012). This gap has increased and keeps rolling up. The closer analysis of the problem of poverty in the city of Beijing gives the solid reason to claim that the Western model of economic development should not be applied as such to the Asian context. Beijing is one of the largest cities of China characterized with a wide gap between the rich and the poor. According to the Chinese latest five-year plan, the current purpose pursued by the government is to ensure a more equitable economic growth at a slower pace as the strategy to narrow this gap. The difference between the poor and rich should be narrowed in terms not only of the social and political necessity but also with regard to the economic aspect. The growing income gap may ultimately have the political consequences for the country. For instance, Beijing is the home for hundreds of thousands of poor rural peopleShow MoreRelatedConsumer Behaviour Essay1598 Words   |  7 Pagesapplied in the Chinese chocolate market as well as how it differs from the Australian market. This paper discuss the chocolate industry of the most populous country of the world based on Market Segmentation and Maslow’s Theory, moreover presents how the Asian country is a potential market for Au stralian exporters. Chocolate history in China The Chinese taste for chocolate is relatively new if compared to the age of the country, the brown sweet was first introduced in the 80s (Allen 2011) fromRead MoreThe South American Megacity New York And The Asian Megacity Of Beijing2449 Words   |  10 Pagesaround 53% of the worlds population living in cities and is projected to rise to around 67% by 2050.1 The comparative analysis sets out to understand the opportunities and challenges among the North American megacity New York and the Asian megacity of Beijing. The metropolitan area of both New York and Beijing consist of a population each over 10 million people, which generally defines as a megacity. A â€Å"megacity† can also be coined as world city, global city, megalopolis, metropolis, conurbation, andRead MoreEssay on A South Korean Company that Operates in China2442 Words   |  10 PagesUS$210,000 in 1998 for its Suzhou division. The 1997 Asian economic crisis led to Samsung shifting its focus towards higher quality products. Samsung realised they could not compete with the Chinese manufacturers in terms of low priced products. In order to remain competitive in China, Samsung shifted its marketing strategy to one based on â€Å"selection and concentration†. After 1997, the focus was on the 10 major cities in China including Beijing, Tianjin, Suzhou, Shanghai and Guangzhou. SamsungRead MoreA Master Plan For A New Mixed Urban Business District1007 Words   |  5 Pagesdemand via new principles of parametric design techniques. However, the research will be faced with a new style rather than just with a new set of techniques. The techniques are the employment of animation, simulation and form-finding tools, as well as parametric modelling and scripting have inspired a new collective movement with new determinants and values. Consequently, this opens up new connected design problems that are being worked on competitively within a global network of design researchersRead More1997 Asian Financial Crisis and Hyundai Motor Corp7119 Words   |  29 PagesHyundai Motor Company-Beijing Automotive Joint Venture Case Study [pic] Topics in Emerging Markets Prof. Mei April 9, 2003 Michael Cheng- mpc238@stern.nyu.edu Richard Lee- rl392@stern.nyu.edu Kevin Park- kgp203@stern.nyu.edu Table of Contents: Executive Summary: 3 Case Study: Introduction: Read More1997 Asian Financial Crisis and Hyundai Motor Corp7129 Words   |  29 PagesHyundai Motor Company-Beijing Automotive Joint Venture Case Study [pic] Topics in Emerging Markets Prof. Mei April 9, 2003 Michael Cheng- mpc238@stern.nyu.edu Richard Lee- rl392@stern.nyu.edu Kevin Park- kgp203@stern.nyu.edu Table of Contents: Executive Summary: 3 Case Study: Introduction: Read MoreThe Rise of China and Future of the West17670 Words   |  71 Pagesleadership of the international system. And as the worlds largest country emerges not from within but outside the established post-World War II international order, it is a drama that will end with the grand ascendance of China and the onset of an Asian-centered world order. THE FUTURE OF CHINA AND NORTH ASIA MAINLAND CHINA, HONG KONG, TAIWAN, JAPAN, SOUTH AND NORTH KOREA. FROM HERE TO 2030 SUMMARY: Revision 2005 The global population of the North East Asia (China, Taiwan, Japan and the twoRead MoreCase2 the Not-so-Wonderful World of Eurodisney1743 Words   |  7 Pagesloss of $900 million by summer of 1994 since opening. Development Crisis looms and rescue was put on October 1994. The parks name was officially changed from Euro Disney to Disneyland Paris, in order to more closely link the park with the romantic city of Paris, and to disassociate itself with the poor reputation that has become linked with the phrase Euro Disney. The tide turnaround in 1996, Disneyland Paris became the most visited tourist attraction in France with 11.7 million (increase 9% fromRead MoreNigerian National Petroleum Corporation : Oil1616 Words   |  7 PagesThese protests over China’s political leadership were student led demonstrations in Beijing that received significant support from city residents. The military decided to crackdown and murder hundreds of civilians. In the aftermath, the Chinese gove rnment was highly criticized by Western governments and the media and China faced a significant impact on its economy. Foreign loans were suspended by the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and other foreign governments and direct foreign investment commitmentsRead MoreSwot Analysis Developing Country Paper3267 Words   |  14 PagesWalmart is the world’s largest company in terms of sells, their success in China has not been the same as in the U.S. The challenge, Walmart faced a problem coming to China when using marketing strategies in China, the â€Å"Every Day Low Prices† in their market. It has cost the company years of trying their best to succeed in China. The biggest challenge the company faced was whether it could transport its successful model to win the market in China with a low cost structure. This paper is going to be about

Friday, May 15, 2020

The outcome of Motivation in firms - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3425 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Motivation is the outcome of processes, internal or external to the individual that arouses interest and diligence to pursue a certain course of accomplishment. Motivation represents a displeased need, which creates a state of anxiety or disequilibrium, causing the individual to make a goal-oriented pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by pleasing the need. The factors that motivate an individual keep altering as one climbs the ladder of age and maturity. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The outcome of Motivation in firms" essay for you Create order Moreover, achievement of one goal sets the ball rolling for another one to be achieved. Therefore, to be motivated is a constant necessitate. One needs to take stalk every now and then and find the motivator required to carry them through. What so ever, motivation is important for several aspects, such as, High performance Low employee turnover and absenteeism Better organizational Image Better industrial relations Acceptability to change Better quality orientation Better productivity Thus, the body of the report will be overlooking at how the above shown can be achieved and what motivational theories are more effective for their achievement. Task 03 Different Motivational Theories Practiced by Organizations and Why They Use them on Employees Abraham Maslows hierarchy of human needs Herzbergs motivator-hygiene theory (Herzbergs dual factor theory) Adams equity theory Expectancy theory Goal setting theory McGregor X Y theory Abraham Maslows hierarchy of human needs Maslows need hierarchy divides human needs into five levels. The basis of Maslows theory of motivation is that beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower needs need to be satisfied before higher needs can be addressed. As to the teachings of Maslow, there are general needs such as, Physiological needs: These are the basic human needs including food, clothing, shelter and other necessities of life. Once these are satisfied they no longer motivate the man. Safety needs: These include economic security, protection from physical dangers. Social needs: Need for love, affection, emotional needs, warmth and friendship. Self esteem: Ego or self-esteem, self respect, self confidence, recognition. Self-actualization needs: desire for personal achievement or mission of his life. These have to be fulfilled before a person is able to act unselfishly. Why Maslows theory is been used in organizations In the words of Fred Luthans, The theory does make a significant contribution in terms of making management aware of the diverse needs of humans at work. The number or names of the levels are not important, nor is the hierarchical concept. What is important is the fact that humans in the work-place have diverse motives. There are two key points why organizations practice Maslows theory: Not all employees are motivated by the same needs The needs that motivate individuals can change in the fullness of time. Moreover, the specific reasons why organization use this theory is due to the followings, It is a logical theory It clearly states that satisfied needs are not motivators. Therefore, organizations can easily concentrate on unsatisfied needs of their subordinates. It shows the organization that a worker advances to the next level only when the lower level is satisfied It offers ideas for understanding the work force needs The theory helps to find out the re asons that influence behavior of a person Herzbergs motivator-hygiene theory (Herzbergs dual factor theory) Frederick Herzberg, set out to determine which work factors such as wages, security, job or advancement made people feel good about their jobs and which made them feel bad about their work. The survey he conducted analyzed results and concluded that to understand employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction. He divided the work factors into two categories: Motivation factors: those factors that are strong contributors to job satisfaction Hygiene factors: those factors that are not strong contributors to satisfaction but that must be present to meet a workers expectations and prevent job dissatisfaction. Thus, the motivation factors such as promotions and opportunities are related to the nature of the work itself and the way the employee performs it. Whereas, hygiene factors such as, physical working conditions are related to the environment in which it is performed. Why Herzbergs theory is in practice The two Factor theory clearly distinguishes between the factors that motivate employees on the job ant the factors that maintain employees on the job. It helps the organization to understand the effect of the job content on motivation of employees It explains to the organization managers the significance of job enrichment on the job redesign and motivation It clearly identifies the factors, which cause job satisfaction dissatisfaction. Hence, it points out to the organization that the presence of maintenance of hygiene factors avoids dissatisfaction of employees but does not cause satisfaction. Adams equity theory Applied to the work environment, this theory proposes that employees analyze their contribution or job inputs (hours worked, experience, performance) and their rewards or job out comes (benefits, salary, recognition). Then they create a rewards ratio and compare it to those of other people such as, Someone in a similar position Someone with a similar occupation Someone who shares certain characteristics Why organizations practice equity theory Equity theory advises organizations to focus on treating workers fairly, especially in determining compensation, which is, naturally, a common basic of comparison. This is mostly studied in organizations to overcome the problem of an employee perceiving an inequity, where he or she might bring the ratio into balance, either by decreasing inputs (working fewer hours) or by increasing outputs (asking for a raise). If this strategy fails, an employee might leave the organization. Expectancy theory Expectancy theory states that an individual tends to proceed in a certain way based on the potential that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the magnetism of that to the individuals. This includes three variables. The key to expectancy theory is to understand an individuals goal and the linkage among effort and performance, performance and reward and last but not the least between rewards and individual goal satisfaction. Thus, expectancy theory has recognized that there is no universal principle for explaining what motivates individuals and, consequently, stresses that managers must understand why employees sights certain outcomes attractive or unattractive. Furthermore, this theory emphasizes expected behavior and individual perception. Why organizations practice expectancy theory This theory helps organizations to drive employee productivity through motivation. Therefore, an organization can link positive valence of the employee to high performance, and ensure that the connection is communicated to employees. In addition, to secure expectation, the organization can identify the resources, training or supervising required. To end with, the management of the respective company needs not to not just ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled but also make sure employees remain aware of this. Goal setting theory There is extensive support for the proposition that specific goals increase performance and that complicated goals, when accepted, result in higher presentation than do easy goals. This proposition is known as goal setting theory. Goal setting theory has demonstrated the superiority of specific and challenging goals as motivating forces. The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus. Hence, a person with a specific goal will outperform someone else operating with no goals. The main findings of goal setting theory are: The mere act of setting goals leads to higher performance compared to having no goals Setting specific, difficult, attainable goals lead to higher performance Challenging goals energize people to put forth greater effort than they otherwise would. Difficult goals lead to the marshaling of existing knowledge and skills Why organizations practice goal-setting theory Correct goal setting and management of the work force enhances performance through increased motivation, effort and persistence. Goal setting theory also improves the quality and frequency of feedback on performance. However, with a clear goal setting theory managers can help employees measure their progress and make necessary adjustments to their methods or effort throughout the process. McGregors X Y theory Douglas McGregor is best known for his formulation of two sets of assumptions about human nature: theory X and theory Y. Theory X presents an fundamentally negative view of people and it assumes that workers have little aspiration, dislike work and need to be closely controlled to work effectively. Therefore, theory Y offers a positive view. It assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, accept and seek out responsibility and consider work to be a natural activity. It is believed that the assumptions of theory Y were more valid than those of theory X. Hence, McGregor himself has proposed that participation in decision making, responsible and challenging jobs and group relations would exploit employee motivation. Why organizations practice X Y theory If the assumption Y is true, an organization and its management can apply the shown principles to improve employee motivation: Broadening the scope of an employees job adds a variety of opportunity to satisfy ego needs Consulting employees in the decision making taps their creative capacity and provides control over their work environment By performance appraisal, having the employees set objectives and participate in the motivation process evaluating how well they were met Leadership Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. There are several styles of leadership: Authoritarian leadership Participative leadership Laissez faire leadership Authoritarian leadership This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. This style is appropriate to use when the leaders have the information to solve the problem, when they are short on time or when the employees are well motivated. Whatsoever, the authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. Participative leadership This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process. However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. By using this style, it will point outs a sign of strength that the employees will respect eventually. This style is normally used when the leader has part of the information while the employee has the other parts. In addition, this style allows leaders to become a part of the team and allows them to make better decisions. Laissez faire leadership In this specific style, the leader allows the employees to make the decision. However, the leader is still responsible for the decision that are been made. This used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how. This style is only used when the leader trusts and is confident about the employees below them. Effectiveness of Leadership A good leader uses all three styles, depending on the forces, which are involved between the followers, leader and the situation. Authoritarian style can be used on a new employee who has just joined the company. Whereas, in this situation the leader can competent as a good coach and the employee will be motivated to learn new skills. Never the less, participative style can be taken into practice when the leader is aware of the problems, but does not have all the information. In this case, when the leader is working with a team of workers who knows the job they will become a part of the decision-making and the overall decision will be more effective. Laissez faire style is used with an employee who knows more about the job than the leader. Whereas, when the leader cannot do everything the employee takes the ownership of the job. In addition, this style also allows the leader to be at other palaces attending other tasks. Difference between Motivation Leadership Motivation is significant because it inspires high performance and achievement within organizations. Whereas, leadership evokes imagery of inspiration, vision, courage creativity and passion. Motivation is linked to both organizational excellence and profitability while, leadership is followed because it is worth following leaders inspire and motivate employees. Motivation is to improve productivity and performance increases when they have challenging goals. Leadership is about product of capability and creditability. Creditability is the key to motivating and inspiring employees to achieve organizational excellence. Effective Leader; a Paramount to an Organization In an organization, normally the managers are the leaders. Therefore, the success or the failure of an organization depends on their leadership skills. Effective leaders are involved with bringing together resources, developing strategies, organizing and controlling activities in order to achieve objective resources. In addition, if the leadership is effective, they can be successful by helping subordinates to find solutions to their problems. Thus, a successful leadership is that function of management, which is largely involved with establishing goals and motivating people to help achieve them. A person might be an effective manager, a good planner and an organized administrator but lack the motivation skills of an effective leader. Given the challenges of dynamic engagement in todays business world, most organizations today are putting premium on managers who possess effectual leadership skills. Effective leadership is the art or process of the workforce so that they will st rive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of organizational goals. It is the ability to persuade others to work towards defined objectives. An effective leader binds a group together and motivates it towards organizations goals. Never the less, a first-class leader helps the organization attain objectives through the finest of its capabilities. Task 04 Nature of Group and Team Roles Nature of groups Groups fall into two categories, formal and informal. Both these groups can be found at Etisalat Sri Lanka. Formal groups are those given legitimacy by the organization whereas informal groups tend to be more social in nature. However, at Etisalat groups are sanctioned by the organization in order to simulate innovation or increase employee morale. Although Etisalat had made sure that these groups would not develop any chaos within the organization but develop in multiple fields such as the, employment exchange which creates more work and career opportunities. By attaining this method, the organization has been capable to: To give the employees a different perspective on the company and their business by living in a different culture. To spur innovation. Team roles Beblin Suggested that, by understanding a particular role within a particular team, people can develop their strengths and mange their weaknesses as a team member, and so improve how to contribute to the team. Though it is rare to find teams which include with all nine team roles, Etisalat has made sure to combined employees who does have multiple roles in there organizational teams. Therefore, Etisalat has above mentioned employee exchange programs as well as well as job rotation programs and teamwork trainings. By these programs, Etisalat tries to build a stronger organizational culture and a strong relationship among the employees. By encouraging each individuals with different team roles Etisalat is attaining to achieve more strength within the organization. Never the less, the organization objective is to create a change in corporate culture by realizing the power of the workforce committed to updating their skills and meeting the demands of the future dynamic synergy throu gh team work. In addition, Etisalat also uses team wok to motivate individuals, who are timid and makes them realize of new strengths by interacting with people talented in multiple ways. Â Stages of Team Building There are four stages of team building. They are: Forming the polite stage in which the team starts to form and members are been treated as strangers Storming this includes feelings and behaviors of the members, members start communicating, and they start testing others. Norming the team starts to work together, and has turned around from the storming phase. The members will be able to express criticism constructively. Performing this is the level where the team is a high-performance team. They can be given new projects and tasks to be accomplished successfully. Above-mentioned stages are evident within Etisalat. The first two stages are clearly seen when employees are newly selected or when they are switched into different locations. Whatsoever, as time passes the employees will be communicating well and will be starting to learn new cultures. Never the less, it is also visible that in the norming stage of teams the employees are more productive in expressing cr iticism. Coming to the last stage it can be evident that the teams are more flexible and engaged in tasks which are been successfully accomplished in the end. These can be manifest by looking at the event and the group projects, which Etisalat has organized. Addition to the above mentioned stages there are two more, which are known as adjourning. This stage involves disbandment of the team, termination of roles and the completion of tasks. Team Cohesiveness Team cohesiveness plays an important role in Etisalats organizational behavior of individuals working in it. This is the essential factor at Etisalat, which binds the members of the teams together. Hence, it is hard for an organization to function without the cohesive feature. At many aspects, it has been told that team cohesiveness has been a negative influence; however, Etisalat has taken many steps to build a good cohesive unit. Team cohesiveness has helped Etisalat to bind by small group size members where the members can easily interact and know individuals thoughts relating to a particular process. Motivation Tools and Techniques There are several ways that Etisalat motivates the workforce. Mentioned below are those significant techniques: Training Etisalat starts training employees from the time they have been selected for a job and continues until the employee leaves the organization. By this, the employee gets to keep in touch with new cultures in the organization as well the new technology and environment around them. Recognition At Etisalat when employees accomplish their tasks, we do our best to give them recognition by presenting them with awards such as the best employee of the month or by handing them over promotions. Social gatherings scheduling offsite events to enhance bonding which in turn helps team spirit, which ultimately influences a positive work environment, this is another motivation method that Etisalat follows. Good working environment Etisalat has flexible working conditions among the employees. In addition, Etisalat has a peaceful environment with fresh paints and inn ovative creations, which gives the employees the need to work at Etisalat. Furthermore, the organization also gives other facilities such as, leadership roles, casual dress day and time offs to keep the workforce motivated all along. Impact of Technology on Team Building The new use of technologies can improve and in some cases hinder team functioning. Shown belp are the latest technologies that Etisalat uses to improve team building: E-mail Etisalat uses e-mail, so that the team members do not need to be in the same place at the same time in order to communicate effectively. Never the less, e-mail also has its negative aspects in terms of managing them. Blackberry Etisalat has given some significant team members technology such as Blackberry and 4G data cards, which allows team members to work while communicating. Groupware this is used at Etisalat to plan meetings, collaborate, delegate all within a virtual environment, which can often be accessed remotely from anywhere in the world. PDAs personal digital assistants now are used at Etisalat to communicate more efficiently while carrying out various teamwork. These are more portable than computers or laptops. However, it is clear that there is negativity in using new technology such as, the lower satisfaction levels for team users of virtual meeting tools in contrast face-to-face meetings. Therefore, understanding that there are pros and cons of technology on team building, Etisalt has a good balance of using modern technology and keeping in touch with traditional practices. Conclusion Leaders and employees reach out beyond their boundaries in order to develop more effective relations, procedures, processes and visions. Most of the problems of todays organizations are due to lack of leadership not talent. Understanding leadership and motivation opens our minds to new thought processes of how people behave and why, helps understand some general principles of human behavior and allows us to use these theories as a guide for day-to-day workplace participation. Moreover, helps analysis and understand group behavior. In todays competitive market, organizations want more from their employees: they want employees who can participate in teams to help them achieve greater success. Leaders know that teams offer many advantages over the traditional distribution of labour and can provide richer, more diverse solutions to problems. Consequently, todays organizations need to understand the importance of team skills and teamwork to be successful.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Rise Of The Persian Empire - 2103 Words

The Persian Empire was the most powerful state in the world. With most great empires there are great leaders which helped with the rise of the empire. Under great leaders the empire was filled with resources. But all great things must come to an end which strikes the fall of a great empire. The rise of Persia starts with the first great leader whose name was Cyrus the Great. Cyrus the Great was known as the father of the Iranian nation, he was the first world leader to be referred to as The Great (Sorat). Cyrus’ strategy for enlarging the Persian kingdom was to conquer nearby lands and then unite them into one empire (Sorat). Cyrus set up a great economy and had a great military which he was able to use to unite the lands into one†¦show more content†¦It is translated into all six official languages of the United Nations and its provisions parallel the first four Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (History). The Human Rights set up by Cyrus the Gre at spread like a wild fire to the surrounding areas. The first set of Human Rights set up by Cyrus the Great had started to spread like wild fire throughout the surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the Empire. It spread quickly to Greece, India, and even Rome (History). Since the spread of Human Rights arose the concept of â€Å"natural law† in observation of the fact that people tended to follow certain unwritten laws in the course of life, and Roman law was based on rational ideas derived from the nature of things (History). Because of Cyrus’s brilliant idea of the concept of Human Rights it has made a monumental evidence in how we do things to day. It made way for the US constitution, French Declaration of Rights, and the US Bill of Rights. Cyrus the Great and plenty of accomplishments prior to his death. After the death of The Great Cyrus the empire was weakened a little because it was under the rule of a weaker emperor. Then came Darius I to the throne and started re strengthening the empire. Darius ruled for 35 years. During his reign, Darius completed the work of his predecessors, and not only did he â€Å"hold together the empire,† but he also extended it in all directions (Fife). With Darius onShow MoreRelatedRise Of The Roman And Persian Empire Essay1582 Words   |  7 PagesRise of the Roman and Persian Empire Throughout history many civilizations have risen and fallen without so much of a second thought from historians. However there have been civilizations that climbed to the top of the metaphorical food chain and stayed there and influenced not only their region but the world for countless millennium even after they were no longer a functioning empire. Two such empires were the Roman Empire and the Persian Empire. The first factor to consider when thinking of successfulRead MoreEssay about The Rise and Fall of the Persian Empire2007 Words   |  9 PagesIran was included in the territory of what was then the ancient Persian Empire. For centuries Iran (land of the Aryans) was also referred to as Persia, which was the official name until 1935. Fourteen years had passed before the Iranian government allowed the use of both names. Few groups of people today have significant history like the Iranians, descending from the ancient Persians, who possess one of the world’s richest and ol dest cultures. Historically, a variety of other cultures and groupsRead MoreThe Rise And Development Of Ancient Persia1259 Words   |  6 PagesAchaemenid Empire is known to be one of the greatest empires in ancient history. It was viewed as the first â€Å"humane, equal and religiously tolerant empire.† It was made up of several different languages, races, religions and cultures. The empire would become large enough to stretch through three continents. The rise and development of Persia revolved around the rule of Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great. Cyrus was a military and political genius that would go on to rule the largest empire in the ancientRead MoreThe Empire Of The Persian Empire1051 Words   |  5 Pagesup resulting in a huge change. The leader of the Persian realm named Cyrus was able to gain much territory after a ruler from Lydia named Croesus attempted to provoke Cyrus. Winter was approaching and Croesus was expecting Cyrus to retreat while he retreating ba ck to his capital at Sardis. After, Cyrus was able to invade and take Sardis successfully. This victory over Lydia was significant in aiding the development and expansion of the Persian empire. There were important social, economic, and culturalRead MoreAlexander The Great Of The Russian Empire969 Words   |  4 Pageseffect on the history of the world cannot be overstated. Alexander’s empire had an effect on people from the Balkans to Egypt, and from Babylon to India. His empire resolved the long standing conflict between the Persians and Greeks, established multiple cities across the Middle East and central Asia, had an influence on a future Indian emperor, and some of the remnants of his empire lasted until the time of the Roman Empire. The empire of Alexander not only had a prominent place in history, but alsoRead MoreEssay on Visually Appealing Films: 300, Rise of an Empire645 Words   |  3 Pages300, Rise of an Empire Honestly, the film looks visually appealing. The sequel hasn’t lost sight of what makes this franchise great, so it just enhances the visuals by making it sharper and the camera transitions smoother. But the story isn’t nearly as captivating. The film centers on Themistocles and Artemisia I of Caria, as well as Xerxes I of Persia. The Battle of Artemisia was a naval engagement, at the same time with the battle of Thermopylae, and was fought between an alliance of Greek city-statesRead MoreThe Greek And Persian Empires1156 Words   |  5 Pages many historians have acknowledged that the classical era was a time when Greek and Persian Empires flourished. With that being said, from approximately 323-800 B.C.E., both the Greek and Persian Empire were experiencing periods of economic, political, and artistic growth. The Persians, like the Greeks, were Indo Europeans, and were located by the Mediterranean Sea, which consequently allowed Greeks and Persians to develop similar ities. At this time, many emerging civilizations lacked communicationRead MoreThe Persian Empire By Cyrus The Great1710 Words   |  7 Pagescentury BCE the Persian Empire was the main empire dominating most of the Mediterranean Sea. It ran from part of modern Afghanistan and Pakistan in to modern day Turkey and portions of Northern Greece. The Persian Empire was a strict state with powerful kings ruling over the massive empire. The empire ruled over a vast ethnic group and proved to have success in diversity, especially with Jews, whose history have been well documented with the Persian Empire. The beginning of the Persian Empire is accreditedRead MoreAncient Civilizations During The Persian Empire920 Words   |  4 Pagescontrol these territories effectively. At its height, the Roman empire controlled nearly the entire Mediterranean shore, and controlled large parts of Europe. The Persian empire at its height controlled lands equaling 8,000,000 sq. km from Macedonia to the Indus Valley. The ability to govern and control these lands was achieved using different methods such as governmental, military, cultural, and religious. The governments of ancient empires with vast amounts of land needed to keep the peace between theRead MoreAlexander The Great Of The Empire929 Words   |  4 Pagesdad died was to take over the Persian empire because this is what his dad wanted to do, he moray thought that this is what he should do to make his dad proud. This all started at the age of 20. Alongside Alexander the Great. The Roman empire took a lot longer to conquer due to its size. T he Persian empire was taken over a lot faster. Alexander ran his empire by him self and gained people as he went along. Speaking more in depth about the rise of the Macedonian empire, this was the top provider for

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Accounting Theory and Current Issue

Question: Describe about theAccounting Theory and Current Issues. Answer: The potential issues that may arise is the agreement on which method or the methods that the accountants and the auditors in the company may use to value the plant, equipment and the property in the organization (Mehta et al, 2012 p193). This may arise from the fact that the different valuation methods may give different values making it hard to arrive at a conclusive amount. The management may also have a say in the valuation process making it hard to arrive at the correct amount in valuation. Risks associated with such misrepresentation are the lack of a true and fair representation of the true value of the assets that belong to the company. For instance, in case they were to take a loan and they over valued or undervalued the value of their assets; such will affect their accessibility to the funds. A false value in the financial statements affects the balancing of the statements as they do not reflect the true value of all assets in the company. KGC has the responsibility of revaluing their assets to the market value at the current standing despite the challenges and the cases in court. This is because the fixed assets held by an enterprise for other purposes other than the reselling decrease in value and should be valued an entity. The main purpose and justification for the revaluation of the assets of an organization is to bring the value to the books the fair market value of the fixed assets. This helps in making decisions on whether to resell the assets or to invest in other type of businesses depending on the value at hand (Kaeb, 2007 p237). Other reasons for revaluing the assets is that it enables the company show the true rate of returns from the capital invested. KGC will also determine the value of the plant, property and equipment as some increase in value while others decrease in values with time. The period between the purchase and the correct price may have a considerable difference. On the other hand, the company should revalue the PP E as they make the necessary plans on the replacement after their useful lives (Miller, 2006 p75). The provisions for the depreciation of the assets are based on the historic costs which indicate the inflated profits. The major principles in accounting and the provision for fixed assets dictate that the assets should be revalued at the end of each financial year as reflected in the financial statements. Principles from the International Accounting Standards (IAS) provide the guidelines of what an organization should consider as an asset which will bring forth the economic benefits to the entity (Houy et al, 2010 p627). The measurement of the PPE are based on the purchase price, the costs that are directly attributed to the asset as well as the costs incurred with the dismantling and the removal of the item at the restoring the site on which the plant, equipment or the property were located. It has two options from where to choose from in the principles to apply when revaluing the asset (Goldthau Sovacool, 2012 p233). The first is either the revalued amount which is the fair value as at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated amount in depreciation and the accumulated losses attached. The other option is the valuation of the cost minus any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Annual depreciation= NBV / remaining useful life 16.5 billion/ 3years = 5.5 billion KGC LTD PP E Movement schedule Cost/ valuation: AUD (billions) NBV 16.5 Additions: 12.0 Reclassification:(20.5) As at the end of year:8.5 Depreciation As at the beginning:5.5 NETBOOK VALUE 8.5 5.5 = 3billion AUD The true and fair Netbook value of KGC LTD is 3 billion AUD its assets are not fully depreciated hence there was no need of revaluation. Therefore, the original cost of the PP E and annual depreciation should be disclosed in the books as the assets are used to generate income. On the other hand, the useful life of an asset was revised since the contract could be renewed up to 10 years in addition of the current 7 years. KGC Ltd has many merits within the area that it operates as it has tremendously helped to improve the life and the living standards of the people within the area, either directly or indirectly through provision of employment opportunities. Many of the employees in the organization are from the local areas and it has enabled invention of the major social amenities like the hospitals and schools within which the local people attend for medical attention and for the thirst of education for their children respectively (Godfrey et al, 2010 p1000). The triple bottom line is an accounting framework which touches on three parts that is the social, the ecological and the financial aspect of the community within which the organization operates. It also helps in creating a greater value in the business. This is also the bottom line of the effect the organization has on the environment and the introduction of the full cost accounting. The triple bottom line or the TBL as commonly known argues that the existence of an organization within an environment and the effect of the same on the environment hence affecting the quality and the life of the people around. In this case, KGC Ltd affects the community negatively through the waste products it emits to the environment and to the water bodies. Such actions risk the life of people health wise. The sludge that it deposited in the village has affected the two local villages (Muduli, et al, 2013 p335). Such has caught the attention of the Australian environmentalist who argues that the company is environmentally irresponsible due to their lack of proper disposal of their waste (Froyd Willis, 2008 p1723). This makes the organization get exposed at a risk of losing out in their existence within the local community due to the remarks from the management on the role that KGC plays on the community around, such remarks are an attempt to justify their reckless behavior. In as much that the KGC Ltd has helped in uplifting the people of the area, they do not have the mandate to have irresponsible ways of disposal of waste products. The TBL issue also helps in measuring the profits and the returns on investment of each organization. In the recent past, it has incorporated the issue of the environment and the social dimensions which makes it important for the company to have an important tool within which they can support their goals while at the same time managing their environment dimensions. The major concern that KGC Ltd should have even as they engage in their mining activities is the profits, the planet, and the people (Muske et al, 2007 p45). In order to succeed and maintain the healthy relationship between the organization and the environment, it should put measures in place within which to calculate a common ground for mutual benefit. The risks that the company faces are the possibility of having the legally recognized environmentalists take over the organization and the management of the organization. The social movements may not take it kindly that the company disregards their welfare despite the many benefits that they get from the existence of the organization within their locality. The government may step in and put harsh measures that will affect the proper management of the organization which may affect the profitability of the organization and other areas streaming down to the local people. The management should make plans on how to deal with the risks that affect them before they develop in adverse results. KGC Ltd has the legal responsibility of maintaining a legitimacy in the eyes of the traditional land owners as it has to pay the dues that it owes to the land owners. This makes it possible for the land owners to enjoy the maximum benefit they can possibly acquire from the organization. The importance of maintaining the legitimacy is that it gives the respect in matters of land ownership hence making it possible for other people on land tenure-ship to give forth the dues they owe other land owners (Fernie Sparks, 2009 p129). Such will help in improving the living conditions of the people in the local area as the impact has on the less fortunate people in the society. The ownership of land by the original owners gives them the power of asking for the dues that belong to them as part of the compensation for the amount that they owed. This depends on the rate at which they agreed from the beginning and the increasing number of rates as time goes. In essence, the rate appreciates depending on the new timing and the increase in the number of years (Esteves Vanclay, 2009 p137). Depending on the agreement of the lease, the organization should continue paying the rates to the land owner to honor the agreement and reduce the risk of conflicts arising. The government of PNG deserves some form of legitimacy in terms of the revenue that it will collect from the company as it is one of the main areas that it gets the resources to conduct public matters. Such depends on the category that the KGC Ltd falls in terms of remitting the tax returns (Donoghue, 2004 p284). They should file the tax returns at the right time to avoid the issues with the government hence enable the government provide the services that it should to the public. On the other hand, the government should ensure that their laws and regulations should not affect the normal operations of the organization through imposing new taxation requirements that the organization should pay. Such new regulations may push the company in refusing to remit the required resources hence creating more conflicts with the government and the organization. The government requires that all organizations operating within their jurisdiction should pay the relevant and required revenues as long as they make profit (Boston, 2006. p96). The tenure policies in regards to land ownership will ensure that the government does not have to get involved in court cases between the organization and the land owners which will make it a lengthy process. Such will ensure that there is legal and social legitimacy in ensuring that all dues were paid by all organizations including the KGC Ltd. The issue of legitimacy on the people of Australia is also another issue that the organization should consider. The people of Australia expect some form of respect to the land ownership issues making the KGC organization pay the dues that it respects. Their maintenance of the legitimacy will act as a communication or message to other organizations that they should respect the boundaries when it comes to land ownership (Boehm, 2005 p144). Other organizations operating within Australia may use the example of KGC Ltd if they failed to honor their rules which may make other organizations follow suit crumbling the whole economy of the country. The far end results are more important that the face value of the maintenance of the legitimacy. The legitimacy of the company is at a high risk due to the current court cases that are facing the company brought forth through their irresponsible actions. Their remarks further aggravate the situation as they feel they are justified to put the lives of the locals at a risk as a result of the many developments that they have helped the PNG people. In order to reduce the risks that they face, they should take actions and rectify the problems they have created which will instill the confidence that the people have on the company (Baskin, 2006 p29). The rare sludge spill may lead to loss of lives of both human and animals due to the reckless actions of the organization. However, in the bigger picture, the closure of the company may affect the lives of many people as most of its employees are from the area. The royalties it owes to the traditional owners of the land within where they mine may further aggravate their position in the land. The taxes to the government and the help they have extended to the community within which they operate do not justify their failure to perform their obligations to the community, the land owners, and the government. Their creditors may come up together to make their demands for the money owed (Azapagic, 2004 p639). There are many other risks that the company may have of which it takes advantage as it is the only monopoly in the organization hence enjoying all the benefits. The government may open another mine that will act as competition to the KGC Ltd PNG Company. There are many consequences that the organization may suffer and face in a position they were to lose the legitimacy. First, their end of tenure in the land may land them in an expected trouble as the landowners may kick them out of their property (Arya Zhang, 2009 p1089). Such an action may affect them in that they may have no other option to do their mining as the place has higher returns although they have not paid the dues that they owe to the others. The dragging of court cases may have further negative effects as they have to pay the court fees and processing fees against the government, the landowners, and the environmentalists. The loss may also affect their future projections as the management has the hope that within some few years to come, there would be large deposits of large deposits of silver and lead ores which may attract a large profit for the company. Such actions may have negative effects on the management and performance of the organization (Solomon et al, 2008 p148). The presence of ores in the land or the adjacent lands may necessitate the need to operate and engage in more mining activities extending to the part of the land. Loss of their legitimacy may make them lose on both opportunities. A consequence on the organization translates to effects on the people in the area. It is evident that the loves of the people around are directly related to the performance of the organization. The risks they face are directly felt by the people within the PNG area. There is hope for the company in restoration of their legitimacy and they can continue their normal operations and the way they conduct business. This may happen through taking the right steps towards rectifying the mistakes and cases that face the company at the courts. The stakeholders may approach the bank and asking for an extension through which they can request for more time within which they can repay the duties and royalties that they owe to all their creditors (Scott, 2014 p45). This may restore the confidence of the people within the area as they will have more trust in the organization. First and foremost, they should revoke their comments in the court as such comments provoked the environmentalists and other social justice groups. They should take the quickest steps in ensuring that they pay the land owners what they owe them. They may also act on the sludge that they have released to the water bodies that the communities depend on. Since it may be impossible to retrieve the sludge in the water, they could start by purchasing water treatment options and treat the water due to the harmful things they have put in the water for planting and usage by the locals. This will help in creating some form of confidence in the people around (Amanatidou et al 2012 p208). |They could also help in bringing tapped water to the locals as a safer method of source of water if it is impossible to treat the water. Engaging in other activities that benefit the community will also put the ratings of the organization within the mind of the community and other stakeholders in the right aspect making it enjoy the same profits as it in the beginning. It may also restore the legitimacy through engaging the lawyers through whom the organization will solve the cases in the courts. The restoration may have effects of benefit to those related to the organization directly or indirectly. For instance, the employees are the immediate beneficial (Riahi, 2004 p67). Other stakeholder who may benefit from the restoration of the legitimacy of the organization is the major investors on the company. This will ensure that they get their regular incomes in term of the returns on their investments. This ensures that the organization can expand its activities due to the future projections that signify that there may be other ores that may have silver and lead making it expands its activities on the positive side. On the other hand, the government gets the biggest benefit from the legitimacy as the expansion in the activities of the organization lead to an increase in the amount of taxes that it receives from the organization. This becomes a regular source of income for the organization as its existence assures that tax arm of the government that they will remit their returns. There are many ways through which KGC LTD could record the cost of the harm associated with the sludge spill in its GPFS. It may opt to start with the treatment of the water to reduce the impact of the spill on the sea and the effect it has on the people around as well as the quality of life affected therein (Widmer et al, 2005 p436). On the other hand, it has to record the cost of the hard on their expenses side as they look for options that will rectify the mistake they have already done on the environment. They may also choose to record such costs as part of the responsibility they have towards the community terming it as donations. Such will reflect on the financial statements as donations as it has to record each movement of their money. An advantage of recording the cost of the harm as an expense will reflect in their accounts and during the auditors reports; they can trace back the amount of money spent in the costs through the receipts. Such will also serve as an incentive through which the management can explain on how they used such a large amount of the shareholders and stakeholders money on an activity through the whole community including the interest parties may have such information already. The disadvantage of such a choice is that the owners of the investment may feel cheated s they may rate this expense as a waste of resources since the organization had the choice of disposing their waste in the right way. The advantages and disadvantages of recording the cost as a donation is that it may affect the financial statements through such a large amount of money as it would have no tangible evidence on using the resources. References Amanatidou, E., Butter, M., Carabias, V., Knnl, T., Leis, M., Saritas, O., Schaper-Rinkel, P. and van Rij, V., 2012. On concepts and methods in horizon scanning: Lessons from initiating policy dialogues on emerging issues.Science and Public Policy,39(2), pp.208- 221. Arya, B. and Zhang, G., 2009. Institutional reforms and investor reactions to CSR announcements: evidence from an emerging economy.Journal of Management Studies,46(7), pp.1089-1112. Azapagic, A., 2004. Developing a framework for sustainable development indicators for the mining and minerals industry.Journal of cleaner production,12(6), pp.639-662. Baskin, J., 2006. Corporate responsibility in emerging markets.Journal of Corporate Citizenship,2006(24), pp.29-47. Boehm, A., 2005. The participation of businesses in community decision making.Business Society,44(2), pp.144-177. Boston, T.D., 2006. The role of black-owned businesses in black community development.Jobs and economic development in minority communities, pp.91-118. Donoghue, A.M., 2004. Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview. Occupational Medicine,54(5), pp.283-289. Esteves, A.M. and Vanclay, F., 2009. Social Development Needs Analysis as a tool for SIA to guide corporate-community investment: Applications in the minerals industry.Environmental Impact Assessment Review,29(2), pp.137-145. Fernie, J. and Sparks, L., 2009.Logistics and retail management: emerging issues and new challenges in the retail supply chain. Kogan Page Publishers. Froyd, C.A. and Willis, K.J., 2008. Emerging issues in biodiversity conservation management: the need for a palaeoecological perspective.Quaternary Science Reviews,27(17), pp.1723-1732. Godfrey, J., Hodgson, A., Tarca, A., Hamilton, J. and Holmes, S., 2010.Accounting theory.-. Wiley. Goldthau, A. and Sovacool, B.K., 2012. The uniqueness of the energy security, justice, and governance problem.Energy Policy,41, pp.232-240. Houy, C., Fettke, P. and Loos, P., 2010. Empirical Research in Business Process Management-Analysis of an emerging field of research.Business Process Management Journal,16(4), pp.619-661. Kaeb, C., 2007. Emerging issues of human rights responsibility in the extractive and manufacturing industries: patterns and liability risks.Nw. UJ Int'l Hum. Rts.,6, p.327. Mehta, L., Veldwisch, G.J. and Franco, J., 2012. Introduction to the Special Issue: Water grabbing? Focus on the (re) appropriation of finite water resources.Water Alternatives,5(2), p.193. Miller, G.W., 2006. Integrated concepts in water reuse: managing global water needs.Desalination,187(1), pp.65-75. Muduli, K., Govindan, K., Barve, A. and Geng, Y., 2013. Barriers to green supply chain management in Indian mining industries: a graph theoretic approach.Journal of Cleaner Production,47, pp.335-344. Muske, G., Woods, M., Swinney, J. and Khoo, C., 2007. Small businesses and the community: Their role and importance within a state's economy.Journal of Extension,45(1). Newton, D., Hase, S. and Ellis, A., 2002. Effective implementation of online learning: A case study of the Queensland mining industry.Journal of Workplace Learning,14(4), pp.156- 165. Pate, R., Hightower, M., Cameron, C. and Einfeld, W., 2007. Overview of energy-water interdependencies and the emerging energy demands on water resources.Report SAND,1349. Riahi-Belkaoui, A., 2004.Accounting theory. Cengage Learning EMEA. Scott, W.R., 2014.Financial accounting theory. Pearson Education Canada. Solomon, F., Katz, E. and Lovel, R., 2008. Social dimensions of mining: Research, policy and practice challenges for the minerals industry in Australia.Resources Policy,33(3), pp.142-149. Widmer, R., Oswald-Krapf, H., Sinha-Khetriwal, D., Schnellmann, M. and Bni, H., 2005. Global perspectives on e-waste.Environmental impact assessment review,25(5), pp.436-458.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Did the Advent of Nuclear Weapons Decisively Change the International Security Nature and Sources

Introduction The advent and proliferation of nuclear weapons distorted and changed the nature of international security. During the World Wars, nations like Germany were more aggressive and characterized by confrontations. With the end of Second World War emerged two super powers namely; The United States of America and The Socialist Soviet Republic.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Did the Advent of Nuclear Weapons Decisively Change the International Security Nature and Sources? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These two nations possessed nuclear weapons. Experts warned that the use of nuclear weapons could bring devastating effects to the globe as nuclear weapons are deemed to cause havoc over a wide range. Instead of military confrontation, the two super powers turned to ideological clash, which sparked the cold war (Gallagher 45). Cold war In the cold war, there was restrain from using weapons because of the t hreat on nuclear weapons, instead the two powers instigated conflicts in other parts of the world. This created tension and havoc in other parts of the world as the world was divided into two ideological canters. The first couple of years saw more political competition than military. They went at each other at the UN summits, articulating their own formulas on how the then post war world should have looked like, and the best methods for ensuring development. Later militarization became a hot issue. This is mainly after communism took over China, the Truman Doctrine and the Korean War. The spread of communism across Asia saw the US becoming more wary. When the communist North Korea invaded the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south, Truman feared that this would lead to the south being taken over, by communism. He authorized the then general in charge of Japan to offer the south support. The US forces entered the war to deter the north from conquering the south, which brought more tension and verbal threats. During the 1960s, the USSR had started to erect missiles in Cuba. Prior to this, the two super powers had signed treaties that no nation should mobilize missiles without notifying the other. The Soviet erected missiles in Cuba without the knowledge of the US. When US intelligence discovered what the Soviet had been doing, there emerged a standoff between the two nations something that is touted would have sparked World War 3 very easily. However, the Soviet withdrew the missiles from Cuba and war had been averted. Nuclear possession was the sole reason why these nations were very cautious not to enter into military confrontations and world peace had been safeguarded.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Contemporary setting As noted, the fact that the two superpowers possessed nuclear weapons was one of the main reason they avoided direct confrontation during the cold war. In fact the two nations entered into treaties on nuclear non-proliferation, with nuclear weapons manufacturing being banned, limiting nuclear weapons possession to the five nations that already possessed them namely the US, Russia, Britain, France and China. In the contemporary modern world nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction has been discouraged. Nations that are deemed to support and encourage nuclear proliferation are internationally rebuked, at times sanctions being imposed. Iran is a good example of a nation that is perceived to be in the process of making nuclear weapons. The Iranian government is widely condemned with sanctions being imposed. Military action has not been ruled. The Iranian regime has threatened to attack Israel something that has threatened international peace (Lambers 70). Conclusion The advent of nuclear weapons has changed the nature and sources of international peace. Emphasis has been shifted on the need to discourage any nuclea r weapons proliferation. The US attacked Iraq claiming that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction thus a threat to its national peace. The Iraq nation has become a failed state since then, becoming a haven for terrorist groups. The rise of terrorist groups has threatened the peace of the region and that of the world in general. Works Cited Gallagher, Nancy. Arms Control: New Approaches to Theory and Policy. New York: Frank Cass Publishers, 1998. Lambers, William. Nuclear Weapons. New York: William Lambers, 2006. This essay on Did the Advent of Nuclear Weapons Decisively Change the International Security Nature and Sources? was written and submitted by user Bennett Cabrera to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Gender Disparity essays

Gender Disparity essays Gender Disparity: Whats the Big Deal? In 1999, speculation over political futures of Clinton and Dole came into focus. Not Bill and Bob, but Hillary and Elizabeth. With Mrs. Clinton a leading candidate for the New York Senate seat (having since attained that position) and observations that Mrs. Dole was a promising choice for the Republican presidential candidacy, gender disparity would seem no longer a Big Deal. More recently, Nancy Pelosi won the race for the No 2 House Democratic leader and will become the top-ranking woman ever in Congress. One of the first issues spoken about upon her victory was the fact that she sought no votes on the basis of her gender. She acknowledged that this is a difficult turf to win on for anyone, but for a woman breaking ground here it was a tough battle and history has been made. Despite the fact that women are now seen as desirable candidates for the nations most prestigious jobs, women still have a long way to go before their power, political and otherwise, can be considered e qual to men. Although gender disparity can been seen in areas outside the workforce such as intercollegiate scholarships, health insurance, and education and medical treatment, I have chosen to focus on the workforce. A news article dated March 26, 2001 quotes a national union leader as saying women earn 28 percent less than men in comparable jobs. Linda Chavez Thompson, executive vice president of the AFL-CIO said women work for free one week every month, and a 25 year-old female will earn $500,000 less than a man in a lifetime because of the wage gap on the national scene. Alicia Smalley, lobbyist for the National Association of Social Workers, said that females comprise 80 percent of her states social workers. Although this group had a 24 percent turnover rate, the governor did not recommend social workers receive a pay increase as he did for male dominated occ...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Key Marketing Issues Facing Gillette Indonesia Case Study

Key Marketing Issues Facing Gillette Indonesia - Case Study Example 1). The company sought to satisfy its domestic and export market. As such, the company manufactures high quality razor blades and shaving systems (Quelch & Bartlett 2006, p. 360). Its target market includes adult urban males who include the working class and college students who manifest western grooming habits (Kanter & Dretler 1998, p. 60-68). However, the company faces immense competition from Tatra, Tiger, and SuperNacet companies that manufactures low-end double-edged blades (Harvard Business School 1998, p. 1). Gillette Indonesia operates in developing countries (Ricardo-Campbell 1997, p. 59) and hence records immense growth from the population and prosperity in Indonesia where shaving is relatively new. The company is already planning to implement a sales price increase (Sarah Ellison & Forelle 2005, p. 1). However, Indonesians only shave 4-9 times in a month. Subject to the fact that the incidence of shaving is relatively low in Indonesia, Gillette Indonesia is having problem s in meeting its growth targets. Gillette must consider raising the awareness on shaving and personal grooming to improve the frequency of shaving, to support Gillette’s sales increase. Situational Analysis Gillette Indonesia seeks to grow and satisfy its domestic market as well as its export targets in developing nations. The company is struggling to capture its market share in Indonesia and focuses on expanding its market. However, shaving and personal grooming is not a priority and many people consider it as a luxury. Gillette Indonesia Financial Analysis In 1996, Gillette Indonesia sought to increase its sales by 25%, which necessitated for an effective marketing plan. Indeed, by 1995, Gillette Indonesia had a 48% unit share in Indonesia and the company sought to increase this percentage to 50% in 1996 (Harvard Business School 1998, p. 5). By this time, the overall market had approximately 40 million urban men over 18 years old that shave where about 13 million people in Indonesia used Gillette blades. Notably, the shaving incidence in Indonesia was at an approximated average of 5.5 times per month, which was much lower than the incidence in other countries like U.S. However, with a view of increasing and maintaining profits, Gillette increased its prices, which resulted to a 2% growth of unit sales in the market (Herath & Park 1999, p. 1-35). Actually, the company had a sales value of $23 million and net profit of $4.6 million with its 48% market share in Indonesia. There are two types of Gillette target customers where the premium customer is a male Indonesian in the growing income class of greater than $10,000 household income. On the other hand, the standard customer belongs to the income class of less than $10,000 household income (Harvard Business School 1998, p. 3). Moreover, the economic conditions in Indonesia are on the rise with the average annual GDP growth standing at 7% in 1995 (Harvard Business School 1998, p. 3). As such, the demand and sales for Gillette blades is likely to increase in the future if the economic growth rate persists. Therefore, to increase the sales by 25%, the company must devise an effective marketing plan to segment and target its customers (Herath & Park 1999, p. 1-35), which is seemingly very challenging in a country where many people consider shaving and persona l glooming as a luxury. Gillette Indonesia SWOT Analysis Strengths Gillette Indonesia specializes in the manufacturing of high quality razor blades and shaving systems, which contributes to the competitiveness of the company (Kanter & Dretler 1998, p. 60-68). It offers a wide range of